Auchinleck

   AUCHINLECK, a parish, in the district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 1½ mile (N. W.) from Old Cumnock; containing 1659 inhabitants, of whom about 600 are in the village. This place, of which the Celtic name is descriptive of its abounding with stone, is supposed to be of considerable antiquity; but little of its history is known, prior to the commencement of the 16th century, when the manor, which belonged to a family of the same name, becoming forfeited to the crown, was granted by James IV. to Thomas Boswell, a branch of an ancient family in the county of Fife, ancestor of the biographer of Dr. Johnson, and who was killed at the battle of Flodden-field. The parish is about sixteen miles in length, from east to west, and not more than two miles in average breadth, and comprises about 19,000 acres, of which 5000 are arable, 300 woodland and plantations, and 13,000 natural pasture and waste. The surface is generally elevated; and towards the east, the hills rise to a height of upwards of 1000 feet, and are bleak and sterile. A moss several miles in length, called Aird's Moss, nearly in the centre of the parish, gives it a barren appearance; the vale of Glenmore, also, of considerable extent, and in a state of nature, presents features of wild aspect; but the western portion of the parish, being wholly in cultivation, has an air of cheerfulness and fertility. The river Ayr, for a small space, forms a boundary between this parish and that of Muirkirk, and pursues its winding course into the parish of Sorn; and the Lugar, another river, separates Auchinleck, for about five miles, from Cumnock, and, for about two miles, from the parish of Ochiltree, and flows into the river Ayr about a mile below this place, near the town of Mauchline.
   The soil is various, generally a stiff retentive clay, but by draining and good management, has, in many parts, been rendered productive; the chief crops are, oats, potatoes, beans, and turnips, and there are a few acres of bear, barley, and wheat. Some progress has been made in furrow-draining; and a portion of the mossy land has been reclaimed, and brought into cultivation. The principal reliance of the farmers is on the dairy, and a large number of milch cows, mostly of the Ayrshire breed, are kept, and a great many young cattle are reared; the milk is chiefly made into cheese of the Dunlop kind, and sent to the markets of Glasgow and other towns. A considerable number of sheep are also fed, of the black-faced breed. The woods contain many fine specimens of stately timber of ancient growth, and the plantations are in general thriving and ornamental. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7497. The substrata are, limestone, coal, ironstone, sandstone, and freestone of various sorts: the limestone and coal have been long extensively wrought, and of the former, there are two quarries, one on the lands of Auchinleck, producing annually about 50,000 bushels of excellent quality, and one at Dalblair, yielding also a fair quantity. There is, near these, an inferior kind of coal, which is used for the burning of lime. Coal-pits have also been opened on the lands of Mr. Alexander, of Ballochmyle, on which, as well as on the Auchinleck property, steam-engines have been erected; the seams of coal vary in thickness, and in the depth at which they are found from the surface, and the average annual produce is about 8500 tons. Freestone is quarried on the banks of the Lugar, and is much esteemed for millstones; and at Wallacetown, is found a stone which is fire-proof. The present house of Auchinleck is a handsome mansion in the Grecian style, erected by Lord Auchinleck, and is situated in a diversified demesne, comprehending much beautiful scenery, richly wooded.
   The village is on the road from Glasgow to Carlisle, by Kilmarnock: many of the inhabitants are employed in weaving, for the manufacturers of Paisley and Glasgow; the principal articles are light silks and muslins. Some females are also employed in flowering muslins, in a variety of patterns, for which this neighbourhood is celebrated. The manufacture of snuff-boxes is carried on to a considerable extent; it was introduced into this place from Cumnock, and the workmen here manufacture card and needle cases, and ornamental boxes of various descriptions. The wood used for this purpose is plane-tree, and many of the specimens are painted in devices, tartan plaiding, and other patterns, and, being well varnished, have a very handsome appearance. They are quite equal, in point of workmanship, to those made at Laurencekirk, though sold at an inferior price; about sixty dozens are sometimes finished weekly, and sent off, chiefly to the London market, but the demand for them is very fluctuating. A fair is held on the last Tuesday in August, for lambs, and is numerously attended. The parish is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of Sir James Boswell, Bart.; the minister's stipend is £161. 1. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum. The old church is an ancient edifice, to which an aisle was added by Lord Auchinleck, in 1754; and underneath it, is the burying-place of the Auchinleck family, hewn out of the solid rock A new church has been recently erected, near the site of the former; it is a substantial and handsome edifice, adapted for a congregation of 800 persons. There is a place of worship for members of the Associate Synod. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4½., with £10 fees, and a house and garden. In the grounds of Auchinleck House, are some remains of the ancient castle, in a greatly dilapidated condition; and in the upper part of the parish, near the junction of the Gelt and Glenmore streams, are slight remains of the castle of Kyle, the history of which is involved in great uncertainty. On the banks of the Ayr, near the confines of the parish of Muirkirk, are the vestiges of some old ironworks, said to have been established by Lord Cathcart; and it is exceedingly probable that new iron-works will shortly be erected in the parish, which abounds with ironstone. William Murdoch, of the firm of Bolton and Watt, of Soho, near Birmingham, and who first applied gas for the illumination of buildings, was a native of this parish.

A Topographical dictionary of Scotland. . 1856.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Auchinleck —   [englisch ɔːkɪn lek, schottisch ɔxɪn lɛk], Sir (seit 1940) Claude John Eyre, britischer Feldmarschall (1946), * Aldershot 21. 6. 1884, ✝ Marrakesch 23. 3. 1981; verbrachte den größten Teil seiner Dienstzeit in Indien, 1943 47 als… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Auchinleck — For the World War II Field Marshal see Sir Claude Auchinleck. infobox UK place country = Scotland official name= Auchinleck scots name= gaelic name= Achadh nan Leac population= 3,512 [cite web|publisher=Scotland s Census Results Online|title… …   Wikipedia

  • Auchinleck — Pour le Field Marshal de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, voir Sir Claude Auchinleck. Auchinleck (gaélique écossais: Achadh nan Leac) est un grand village avec une population d environ 3900 habitants, située à 8 km au sud est de Mauchline Muirkirk et… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Auchinleck — Der Name Auchinleck hat mehrere Bedeutungen: Claude Auchinleck (1884 1981) eine Stadt in East Ayrshire, siehe Auchinleck (Ayrshire) Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezei …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Auchinleck — Recorded in some forty spellings of which the most popular in modern times are Auchinleck and Affleck, this is one of the ancient and honourable surnames of Scotland. It has two possible origins, both locational. It may originate from the barony… …   Surnames reference

  • Auchinleck — Original name in latin Auchinleck Name in other language Auchinleck State code GB Continent/City Europe/London longitude 55.47157 latitude 4.29337 altitude 157 Population 3282 Date 2011 03 03 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • AUCHINLECK —    a village 15 m. E. of Ayr, with the mansion of the Boswell family …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Auchinleck —  Family name of James Boswell; pronounced [aff leck] …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Auchinleck — /ɔˈkɪnlɛk/ (say aw kinlek) noun Sir Claude John Eyre, 1884–1981, British field marshal …   Australian English dictionary

  • Auchinleck House — is one of the finest 18th century mansions in Scotland. It is situated near the town of Auchinleck near Cumnock and Ayr in East Ayrshire. Built ca. 1760 by Alexander Boswell, 8th of Auchinleck, it later passed on to his son, the famous biographer …   Wikipedia

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